8mm mass - about the size of a green pea
Acapella breathing exerciser - a device that delivers vibrating air under positive pressure
acetylcysteine - antioxidant drug used to thin mucus
Achondroplastic - Achondroplasia is the most common type of dwarfism, in which the child's arms and legs are short in proportion to body length.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) -
acute illness that is brief, severe and comes quickly comes to a crisis
Adenopathy - large or swollen lymph glands
Aerophagia - swallowing air
ALA - American Lung Association
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, AATD -
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a lack of a liver protein that blocks the destructive effects of certain enzymes. The condition may lead to emphysema and liver disease.
ALS - Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Alveoli - tiny ‘air sacs’, at the end of branching of lung tree, where oxygen is delivered to the blood stream and carbon dioxide is removed.
Ambien - sleep medication
Angioprim - antioxidant
Ankylosing spondylitis - Is a type of arthritis of the spine. It causes swelling between your vertebrae, which are the disks that make up your spine, and in the joints between your spine and pelvis.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) - is a rare immunological disorder characterized by recurring blood clot
Aortic Valve Stenosis - narrowing of the aortic valve
ARDS - Adult Respiratory Disease Syndrome
Aspiration pneumonitis - injury to the lung caused by gastric contents
Atelectasis -- collapse of the lung or part of the lung
Atrovent – ipratropium
Avelox - antibiotoic
BAN – Breath-Actuated Nebulizer; produces aerosol only during the inspiration
Barrett’s Esophagus - a condition in which the esophagus, the muscular tube that carries food and saliva from the mouth to the stomach, changes so that some of its lining is replaced by a type of tissue similar to that normally found in the intestine
BCG, or bacille Calmette-Guérin - A vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. Many foreign-born persons have been BCG-vaccinated. BCG is used in many countries with a high prevalence of TB to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease.
Benign - not cancerous
Bicarbonate - like baking soda
BID – twice a day
Bilateral - both sides
Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) - is a technique that is often used to treat sleep apnea and to provide airway support with a face mask rather than tracheal tube that is attached to a mechanical ventilator
Bi-Pap - a machine that aids with oxygenation and ventilation
Bleomycin - a drug that is used to treat several types of cancer
Body Mass Index (BMI) - A measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both adult men and women
Body plethysmography - a test used to measure gas volumes and airway resistance
Bronchiectasis - abnormal destruction and widening of the large airways
Bronchiolitis – an inflammation of the small passages in the lungs (bronchioles), usually caused by a viral infection.
Bronchoiolitis Obliterans with Organizing Pneumonia – BOOP
Bronchoscopy - a diagnostic procedure in which your doctor uses a scope (a tube with a camera on the end) to take a look at the inside of the airways and lungs. Lung tissue biopsies can be obtained during a bronchoscopy.
Bullectomy - the surgical removal of a bulla
Bullous - enlarged air sacks
C. diff - a bacterium that can cause symptoms
ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon
Capnography - measures exhaled CO2
Carbohydrate – carb
Cardiomyopathy - a weakening of the heart muscle or a change in heart muscle structure. It is often associated with inadequate heart pumping or other heart function abnormalities.
CO - carbon monoxide
Cardizem - medication for heart disease
Catamenial Pneumothorax- is a rare condition, which often involves endometriosis of the diaphragm, causing the lung to collapse during menses
CEA - A substance that is sometimes found in an increased amount in the blood of people who have certain cancers, other diseases, or who smoke.
Center Disease Control – CDC
Chest Physiotherapy Therapy (CPT) - the use of vibrating, pounding, etc in treatment of pneumonia
Cilia - little hairs in the airways of the lungs that beat back and forth to move mucus out of the lungs
Cilia Immotile Syndrome - rare genetic birth defect that causes abnormal or absent movement of the cilia.
CO2 - carbon dioxide
COHb, carboxyhemoglobin - carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin, to form carboxyhemoglobin and in this process, the carbon monoxide takes the place of oxygen
Comorbidity - pertaining to a disease or other pathological process that occurs simultaneously with another.
Congestive Heart Failure – CHF
Costochondritis - is an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone (sternum).
Coumadin - blood thinner
CPAP - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
CPAP machine - used to help keep the airways open during sleep
Cromolyn Sodium, Intal (brand name) - a drug that is used to in the treatment of asthma
Crohn’s disease – an ongoing disorder that causes inflammation of the digestive tract
CRT – Certified Respiratory Therapist
CyberKnife® - a
Robotic Radiosurgery System is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for the
treatment of both cancerous and non-cancerous tumors anywhere in the body,
including the prostate, lung, brain, spine, liver, pancreas and kidney.
The treatment delivers beams of high dose radiation to tumors with extreme accuracy.
Cystic Fibrosis – CF - is an inherited condition affecting the cells that produce mucus, sweat, saliva and digestive juices.
Diplophonia - a condition in which the voice simultaneously produces two sounds of different pitch.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) - is a serious disorder in which the proteins that control blood clotting are abnormally active
DLCO - the lungs diffusing capacity
Duraflu - over the counter medication
DVT - Deep venous thrombosis is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein that is deep inside the body
Dyspnea - difficulty breathing or breathlessness
E. coli – Also known as Escherichia coli; a large and diverse group of bacteria.
Echocardiogram - ultrasound is used to view the heart
EGD - (esophagogastroduodenoscopy), an examination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum with a small camera (flexible endoscope) which is inserted down the throat.
Emergency Room – ER
Endotracheal tube (ET Tube) - a breathing a tube placed in the airways, through the mouth or nose, to keep the airway open and this tube can be connected to mechanical ventilators for the purpose of delivering air and/or gases into the lungs
ENT – Ear, nose and throat doctor
Exacerbations – worsening of condition/disease or flare-up
Extubate/Extubation - the removal of a breathing tube from a person’s airway
Fenestrated tracheotomy tube - tracheotomy tube that has a hole in it for airflow through vocal cords and upper airway to allow speech
FEV1 - Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second
Fibroadenoma - a benign (noncancerous) tumor
Fibromyalgia - is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain in your muscles, ligaments and tendons, as well as fatigue and multiple tender points.
Flolan Pump - medication that is delivered through tubing that is permanently placed into a vein in the neck
Fluticasone - a corticosteroid
Fosamx - used to treat or prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis and steroid-induced osteoporosis.
Furosemide (Lasix) - a diuretic
FVC (Forced Vital Capacity) - the maximum volume air that can be forcefully exhaled
GERD - Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Granuloma - calcium growth
HBP - high blood pressure
Helios - a portable liquid oxygen device
Heliox - helium and oxygen mixture
Hemidiaphragm – one of the two lateral halves of the diaphragm separating the chest and
Hiatal hernia - a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm
Histoplasmosis - a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, which grows in soil and material contaminated with bat or bird droppings
HIV - The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that kills your body’s "CD4 cells." CD4 cells (also called T-helper cells) help your body fight off infection and disease. HIV can be passed from person to person if someone with HIV infection has sex with or shares drug injection needles with another person. It also can be passed from a mother to her baby when she is pregnant, when she delivers the baby, or if she breastfeeds her baby.
HME - humidification system
HRCT - High Resolution CT Scan
Hydroxyzine Pamoate – Vistaril
Idiopathic - unknown origin
ILD - Interstitial Lung Disease
Inogen One - a portable oxygen concentrator
Interstitial Pneumonitis - lung inflammation
Isoniazid - a drug that is used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and to prevent it in people who have had contact with tuberculosis bacteria.
Lavage - washing out with fluid
Lidocaine - a local anesthetic
Lobectomy - surgical removal of the lobe of the lung
Lpm - liters per minute
Lupus - is a chronic, autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body (skin, joints, and/or organs inside the body).
Marfan syndrome - an inheritable condition that affects the connective tissue
Mediastinum - is the part of the chest between the sternum and the spinal column. It contains the esophagus, trachea, heart, and other important structures.
Mediastinotomy - a procedure in which the doctor inserts a tube into the chest to obtain biopsy sample/s of the lymph nodes in the chest
Meniere's disease - problem with the inner ear that symptoms include dizziness, a feeling of fullness in the ear and tinnitus (a roaring sound in the ear).
Meningioma - a type of tumor that develops from the meninges, the membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
MEP - Maximal Expiratory Pressure
Methacholine Challenge - a test that can identify people with “sensitive” airways, often used to diagnosis asthma
MIP - Maximal Inspiratory Pressure
Mitral Valve - the valve that connects the two chambers of the left part of the heart
Moraxella catarrhalis - a disease causing ear and upper and lower respiratory infections.
Mucinex – Guaifenesinis - thins the mucus in the air passages and makes it easier to cough up the mucus and clear the airways
Mucomyst - a physician-prescribed medicine used to thin mucus, is also called N-Acetylcyetein
MVV - Maximum Voluntary Ventilation
Nasal cannula - an oxygen device that is placed into the nostrils so that oxygen can delivered
NPS –Neonatal/Pediatric Specialist
NSIP - Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia
Normal Saline - salt solution
Osteopenia - bone weakening
Otolaryngologists - physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment
of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and
related structures of the head and neck.
Oximeter - a machine that measures your oxygenation
Oxygen Conserving Device – a device that controls the delivery the flow of oxygen begins when you begin to inhale and then the flow stops until you begin to inhale again.
Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve - a mathematical relationship, that is viewed as a graph, showing the amount of oxygen that combines with hemoglobin as a function of the partial pressure of oxygen
Paradoxical Reaction - A response that is the opposite of the usual response, i.e. such as agitation produced in an individual patient by a drug normally considered to be a sedative.
PET scan (Positron Emission Tomography) - is a test often used to detect cancer
Percutaneous biopsy - tissue sample is obtained by insertion of needle
PFT - Pulmonary Function Test
Phrenic Nerve - a nerve that originates in the cervical spine and passes
down to the diaphragm
PICU - Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
Pleural - the lining that covers the lungs
Pleurectomy - the surgical procedure to remove the parietal pleura, the outermost lining around the lungs.
Pleurodesis - a procedure to prevent recurrent fluid build-up between the lung linings
Pneumomediastinum - is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum (the space in the chest between the two lungs).
Pneumonitis -general term that refers to inflammation of lung tissue
Pneumothorax- is a collection of air or gas in the lung linings and causing the lung to collapse
Polycythemia vera - an abnormal increase in blood cells, primarily red blood cells, due to excess production of the cells by the bone marrow
Primary cilary dyskinesia - is a disease that causes a chronic cough, recurrent infections of the lung, and scarring of the airway.
PRN - use as needed
Pseudomonas - infection caused by bacterium
Pulmonary Emboli - a blood clot blocking an artery in the lung
Prolastin therapy - medicine to treat Alpha 1 and is given by IV (intravenous)
Pulmonary Function Test (PFT)
Pulse-ox - a machine that measures oxygen saturations
Pulsing vest - a vest that rapidly inflates and deflates; some vest products also provide vibration
Pursed lip breathing technique:
- First inhale slowly through your nose, with your mouth closed.
- Slowly exhale through pursed lips, shape your mouth as you do when whistling
Qvar - an inhaled steroid used as a control medication)
RA - Rheumatoid Arthritis
RAD - Reactive Airways Disease
Residual Volume - the volume of air that can not be exhaled
Resection - the surgical removal of part of an organ
Respirator - mechanical ventilator
Respiratory Bronchiolitis Interstitial Lung Disease (RBILD) - a rare form of interstitial lung disease
Rheumatologist - an MD who treats rheumatic illnesses, especially arthritis
RRT - Registered Respiratory Therapist
RSV - Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH-uhl) virus, or RSV, is a respiratory virus that
infects the lungs and breathing passages. Most otherwise healthy people recover
from RSV infection in one to two weeks. However, infection can be severe in
some people, such as certain infants, young children, and older adults.
Sarcoidosis - a disease of unknown cause in which inflammation occurs in the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, or other tissues
SCBA -Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
Scoliosis - an abnormal curvature of the spine
Seretide - medicine that is not available in the USA
Sniff Test – a fluoroscopic exam used to evaluate whether the diaphragm (the muscle that controls breathing) moves in the proper direction during various maneuvers including normal breathing and while rapidly inhaling.
SOB - shortness of breath; breathing difficulties involve a sensation of difficult or uncomfortable breathing or a feeling of not getting enough air
Spiculated mass - a lump of tissue with spikes or points on the surface
Spiriva – tiotropium
Spirometer - a device used to measure lung function
Spirometry - a test to measure lung function that can be done in a doctors office
Spontaneous pneumothoracies - lung collapse occurs where there is no clear cause
Straight Back Syndrome - consisting of loss of normal upper thoracic spinal curvature
Stenosis - narrowing
Suction Catheter - a small tube is put inside of an airway to suction out excess mucus
TB - Tuberculosis
TBC - Post-tuberculosis lung disorder
Thoracotomy - surgical incision of the chest wall and often lung tissue is removed
TLC - Total Lung Capacity
Tobramycin – antibiotic
Trach – tracheotomy
Trach "button” - a tube that holds the tracheotomy open
Tracheomalacia - a weakening of the supporting structure of the tracheal cartilage
Tracheotomy - an opening surgically created through the neck into the trachea/windpipe
Transtracheal Oxygen Therapy (TTO), - a method to deliver oxygen to the lungs via a small tube inserted into the lower neck
Tussionex - an antihistamine and narcotic cough syrup
Ultrasonic nebulizer - a nebulizer that produces finer aerosol particles
USDA - United States Department of Agriculture
UIP - usual interstitial pneumonia
Valley Fever - Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides species. These organisms live in the soil of semiarid areas. It is endemic in areas such as the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico and South America. Most of the people who get the disease are people who live in or visit places where the fungus is in the soil and who engage in activities that expose them to dust (such as construction, agricultural work, military field training and archeological exploration).
Varicella Pneumonia - lung infection caused by chicken pox.
Vicodin - narcotic pain reliever
Vioxx - a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Volutrauma - lung damage due to high volumes of airflow while on a mechanical ventilator
VTG - Thoracic Gas Volume
Wegener's Granulomatosis - an uncommon disease, in which the blood vessels are inflamed
Z-Pak – antibiotic
National Lung Health Education Program
Thomas L. Petty MD, FAARC